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Geologists have studied the order in which fossils appeared and disappeared through time and rocks. Fossils can help to match rocks of the same age, even when you find those rocks a long way apart.This matching process is called correlation, which has been an important process in constructing geological timescales.(The near-vertical stripes are blasting drill holes.The image is about 7 m across.) [SE photo] An unconformity represents an interruption in the process of deposition of sedimentary rocks.
The principle of inclusions states that any rock fragments that are included in rock must be older than the rock in which they are included.[SE] The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that any geological feature that cuts across, or disrupts another feature must be younger than the feature that is disrupted.An example of this is given in Figure 8.7, which shows three different sedimentary layers.Tilting and erosion of the older rocks took place during this time, and if there was any deposition going on in this area, the evidence of it is now gone.Figure 8.8 The great angular unconformity in the Grand Canyon, Arizona.